Then the land will enjoy its sabbaths all the days of the desolation, while you are in your enemies land; then the land will rest and enjoy its sabbaths. Then the king sent an answer issue a decree to make these men stop work, that this city may not be rebuilt until a decree is issued by me. Then work on the house of God in Jerusalem ceased, and it was stopped until the second year of the reign of Darius king of Persia (emphasis added). Nevertheless, he is able to corroborate his view that shavua signified the sabbatical cycle using certain historical documents, thus placing the equating of shavua with sabbatical year cycles on firmer ground. These and similar passages allude to the sabbatical cycles known to have been observed in Palestine from the post-exilic period to the fifth or sixth Christian century. Besides, if the creditor had waited until the end of the seventh year, the debtor would have given him seven years of service, not six! qowl, voice] throughout his kingdom, and also put it in writing, saying, Thus says Cyrus king of Persia, The LORD, the God of heaven, has given me all the kingdoms of the earth, and He has appointed me to build Him a house in Jerusalem, which is in Judah. The one who sent out the word to begin the reconstruction of Jerusalem was Ezra. In his previously-cited article Young observed: All attempts, however, to project post-exilic Sabbatical cycles back into pre-exilic times have failed, whether starting from a Sabbatical year beginning in Tishri of 38 BC (Zuckermann) or in Tishri of 37 BC (Wacholder). In Supplementary Evidence cited above (p. 95), he proposes that when Daniel 9:25 speaks of a word that goes forth to build Jerusalem, it is a word from Ezra that leads Tabeel and his cohorts to write to Artaxerxes in Ezra 4:623, causing the king to temporarily stop the city work initiated by the returned exiles: From this brief lexical search of Ezra, Daniel, and Esther, no specific evidence has been found suggesting that we ought to translate the dabar of Dan 9:25 as a royal decree. It could just as well be the word of a person other than the king. . Ezra 4:16, 1012, 17, 21, 24: Now when the enemies of Judah and Benjamin heard that the people of the exile were building a temple to the LORD God of Israel, they approached Zerubbabel and the heads of fathers' households, and said to them, Let us build with you, for we, like you, seek your God; and we have been sacrificing to Him since the days of Esarhaddon king of Assyria, who brought us up here. But Zerubbabel and Jeshua and the rest of the heads of fathers households of Israel said to them, You have nothing in common with us in building a house to our God; but we ourselves will together build to the LORD God of Israel, as King Cyrus, the king of Persia has commanded us. Then the people of the land discouraged the people of Judah, and frightened them from building [the Temple], and hired counselors against them to frustrate their counsel all the days of Cyrus king of Persia, even until the reign of Darius king of Persia. Some list a fourth decree based on what is recorded in Nehemiah 1. Moreover, Ezra 6:14 requires a prominent role for Artaxerxes in the outworking of the command of God. Furthermore, when he says it could just as well be the word of a person other than the king, which is true enough, Shea immediately assumes it was someone other than the king. The passage in Isaiah 1:26 is a prophecy of what Ezra would do. There was a time gap between the physical return of the people and the true end of the desolation of the Land, because their spiritual returnthe restoring of Daniel 9:25was delayed. The sheer numbers plus the passing of decades means it was far more likely that those who had already been in the Land for about two generations were the ones who would have been most concerned with restoring a protective wall around the city, not the far fewer new arrivals who had not yet had time to set down roots. Modern exegetes interpret the passage without reference to Jewish chronology current at that time. Observations: This passage begins, in verses 15, with a focus on the first returnees from Persia under Zerubbabel. Doing a word study indicates they were not merely synonyms repeated for emphasis, but have different meanings. No matter what your level of interest, from keeping abreast of the fascinating research that comes out of the field work, to actively participating in an archaeological dig, you can become an integral part of our ministry. Nevertheless, from this assumption he then suggests the Jews who came up from you must refer to those who had arrived from Artaxerxes with Ezra in 457 BC. Deuteronomy 31:1012 reads: Then Moses commanded them, saying, At the end of every seven years, at the time of the year of remission of debts, at the Feast of Booths, when all Israel comes to appear before the LORD your God at the place which He will choose, you shall read this law in front of all Israel in their hearing. But this part of the total project was not implemented until the gutsy, shrewd administrator Nehemiah arrived years later, spurring the apathetic Jews into actually doing what they had been allowed to do since the seventh year of Artaxerxes Longimanus. In Israel, the sowing of the winter crops (barley and wheat) takes place in approximately November and reaping takes place in the spring. 'amar] of Jerusalem, She shall be inhabited! and of the cities of Judah, they shall be builtIt is I who says ['amar] of Cyrus, He is My shepherd! Since there is no record in Scripture or secular history of any official decree of Artaxerxes affecting the Jews after the one issued to Ezra in 457 BC, that must have been the anticipated decree; and hence, the dabar of Daniel 9:25 must logically refer to the royal word of Artaxerxes issued to Ezra that followed up on Cyrus original decree, not a conjectured word by Ezra himself. Restoring the spiritual aspects was more important in the LORDs eyes than merely repairing stone and mortar structures; God is always portrayed in the Word as primarily concerned with the spiritual life of His people, having them relate to Him by following His precepts faithfully, and in Daniel 9:25 the restoring is mentioned before the rebuilding, implying it was the more important consideration. The prophecy thus stipulates that, from the issuing of the correct decree, seven septennates49 years, as in a Jubilee cycle (Lev 25:8)plus an additional 62 septennates434 yearswould pass before an anointed one would come to the Jews. He led the Jews in rebuilding the walls around their capitol city. There is a good picture of one at https://picryl.com/media/looking-down-moat-outside-tower-of-david-toward-clock-tower-before-1917-american. Sabbatical and Jubilee years therefore started in Tishri, the month in which the Jewish Rosh HaShanah or New Years Day was celebrated in the past and is celebrated in our own day. Artaxerxes I was the King of Persia during the time of Nehemiah and Ezra. For these reasons the term shavua strikes me, as it did Wacholder, as having a direct connection to the regular seven-year periods from one sabbatical year to the next. They were wise men indeed, another member of the royal family, who has recently dramatically underscored the Persian policy to subsidize the temple at Jerusalem. We know from history that the command to "restore and rebuild Jerusalem" was given by King Artaxerxes of Persia c. 444 B.C. Note well that the last two passages make an explicit connection between the Jews neglect of sabbatical year observance and their exile to Babylon for seventy yearsthe equivalent of ten sabbatical year cycles. Given how clear Cyrus permission had been to rebuild the Temple, this complaint must have focused on something other than Temple construction. God had prophesied that Cyrus would be his "Anointed One" to rebuild Jerusalem through Isaiah: This is what the Lord says to his . And how can we speak of the spiritual significance of the city being restored apart from the reforms spearheaded by Ezra to fully reintegrate the prescriptions of the Law back into Jewish daily life? Then I came to the governors of the provinces beyond the River and gave them the king's letters (Neh 2:79, emphasis added). God foretold to the day when Messiah would present Himself to Israel as their Messiah-King. Ezra 8), but the much larger assemblage who came up with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:6465, The whole assembly numbered 42,360, besides their male and female servants who numbered 7,337). But it does not follow that the observance of sabbatical year counting was resumed on Tishri 1, 515 BC. charuwts), even in times of distress. The word here translated plaza conveys the idea of streets that make up a town square (cf. It was not issued by a Persian king from Pasargadae or Persepolis, it was sent forth from Jerusalem by Ezra. Now we will dig a bit more deeply into Daniel 9:25, for there is additional light we can derive from that verse which gives a more complete understanding of its implications. And let the cost be paid from the royal treasury. Moreover, the observance of these regular cycles was a non-negotiable requirement of the Law laid upon the Jews: You shall do these things, said the Almighty. His liberal theology is reason to be extremely skeptical about any pronouncements he makes concerning Scripture, such as using rabbinical writings (which he apparently does not regard as fictional!) In a word, yes. The first unit of 49 years (seven "sevens") covers the time that it took to rebuild Jerusalem, "with streets and a trench, but in times of trouble" (Daniel 9:25). The counting must commence with Tishri 1 of some year, in accordance with Mishnah Rosh Hashanah 1a: On the first of Tishrei is the New Year forthe Shemittah (sabbatical year) and the Yoveil (Jubilee) count (http://www.emishnah.com/moed2/Rosh_HaShanah/1.pdf). Ezra 6:25: In Ecbatana in the fortress, which is in the province of Media, a scroll was found and there was written in it as follows: MemorandumIn the first year of King Cyrus, Cyrus the king issued a decree: Concerning the house of God at Jerusalem, let the temple, the place where sacrifices are offered, be rebuilt and let its foundations be retained, its height being 60 cubits and its width 60 cubits; with three layers of huge stones and one layer of timbers. If your kinsman, a Hebrew man or woman, is sold to you, then he shall serve you six years, but in the seventh year you shall set him free. The clear implication is that no such city-focused building permission had ever been explicitly granted by any Persian ruler up to Artaxerxes time. is from the 1885 Bible. There was nothing indirect or oblique about this. The decree comes from the seventh year of Artaxerxes (Ezra 7:8). At that point, Nehemiah led the charge to reinforce the gates of the temple and to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem, which took 49 years and equates to the first 7-week period. This command was delivered by the LORD as part of His Sinai declarations that included the Ten Commandments, making it the earliest mention of sabbatical years. And in the days of Artaxerxes [the throne name for Longimanus], Bishlam, Mithredath, Tabeel and the rest of his colleagues wrote to Artaxerxes king of Persia let it be known to the king that the Jews who came up from you have come to us at Jerusalem; they are rebuilding the rebellious and evil city and are finishing the walls and repairing the foundations. Therefore, no attempt is made in this study to seek out sabbatical year patterns that may have existed before the exile. King Saul and the Witch of Endor: Necromancy and Ghost Pits in the Ancient World, The Parthian War Paradigm and the Reign of Herod the Great, Top Ten Discoveries Related to Moses and the Exodus, Further Ruminations on the Shroud of Turin, A Note from Dr. Scott Stripling on Shiloh and the Mt Ebal Discovery, The Mount Ebal Curse Tablet, Featuring Dr. Scott Stripling on CenterPoint, ABR Researchers Discover the Oldest Known Proto-Hebrew Inscription Ever Found, "We Saw His Star in the East": Thoughts on the Star of Bethlehem, Debunking the City of David Temple Myth with Archaeologist Dr. Scott Stripling, Caesar Augustus: An Archaeological Biography, Away in a Manger, But Not in a Barn: An Archaeological Look at the Nativity, The Supreme Authority of Scripture (Part Two), Three Things in Babylon Daniel Likely Saw, Important Biblical Archaeological Discoveries in 2021: An Update from Dr. Bryant Wood, The Supreme Authority of Scripture (Part One). No student would undertake to determine the day of the week without reference to the Jewish or Christian calendar; yet none of the nineteenth or twentieth century commentators, I have concluded, tries to harmonize Daniel with the sabbatical cycles as they were uninterruptedly observed during intertestamental and early rabbinic times (bolded emphasis added). , He was a scribe who had prepared his heart to seek the Law of the Lord, and to do it, and to teach statutes and ordinances in Israel. From this point forward, there would be another 434 years as Israel waited for the coming of the Messiah. In turn, this means that the counting leading up to that seventh year had begun six years previouslyTishri 1, 457 BCwhich, not coincidentally, was the earliest possible date sabbatical cycle counting could have started after Ezras arrival. The context of this passage is the situation just before the Babylonian captivity; as the ESV Study Bible notes for Isaiah 1:2428 express it, The prophet looks forward to a cleansed people after the historical judgment of the exile, restored to its mission. It promises the LORDs judgment on the nation, that their dross and alloytheir sinful compromises with the surrounding nationswill be removed. So Ezra the priest brought the Law before the assembly, both men and women and all who could understand what they heard, on the first day of the seventh month. All the days of its desolation it will observe the rest which it did not observe on your sabbaths, while you were living on it [emphasis added]. Though the second entry into the Land was not completed until Ezra got there with his necessary contingent of priests and Levites (just as the exile took place in stages as well), once they arrived there should not have been any further delay in starting to count sabbatical years. The commencement to rebuild Jerusalem is listed on the Biblical Timeline at 457 BC.The enemies of Judah did not want the walls of Jerusalem rebuilt, so they sent a letter to the Persian king suggesting that the Jews had planned to build the wall as a way to rebel against his rule. Shea, Supplementary Evidence in Support of 457 B.C., JATS 12.1, p. 94, online at http://archive.atsjats.org/JATS12.1-09Shea.pdf), and the passage does not reveal who issues this word. Read in the light of the other passages under discussion, however, it seems we should understand it as an official decree which goes farther than the original Temple-focused one issued by Cyrus. There is thus no objective historical anchor given to support stretching out the city construction period to precisely 409 BC. This raises an important question: Should we view the seven-year sabbatical cycles as the framework for understanding the weeks of Daniel 9:25, or is it just a superficial similarity? The burning of the Temple, an essential aspect of the desolation, is known to have taken place on Av 9 (July 29), 587 BC, about two months before the next agricultural year would have begun on Tishri 1 (September 18), 587 BC. In Notions of Exile, Subjugation and Return in Rabbinic Literature, in James M. Scott, ed., Exile: Old Testament, Jewish, and Christian Conceptions (Leiden: Brill, 1997), 265296 (online at https://www.academia.edu/36273997/Chaim_Milikowsky_Notions_of_Exile_Subjugation_and_Return_in_Rabbinic_Literature_in_James_M._Scott_ed._Exile_Old_Testament_Jewish_and_Christian_Conceptions_Leiden_Brill_1997_265-296), the above translation is quoted with this comment: The main thrust of the passage is to compare the second entry into the Land, in the time of Ezra, to the first entry into the Land, in the time of Joshua. It is no wonder Nehemiah was so upset when he heard Hananis report: when I heard these wordsI sat down and wept, and mourned for many days; I was fasting and praying before the God of heaven (Neh 1:4, emphasis added). motza'] of a decree [Heb. Six years you shall sow your field, and six years you shall prune your vineyard and gather in its crop, but during the seventh year the land shall have a sabbath rest, a sabbath to the LORD; you shall not sow your field nor prune your vineyard (emphasis added). Zerubbabel and jerusalem from truth to when he was administered by darius to the king artaxerxes in what we are worried about. Here we present the extended passage, Isaiah 1:2126: How the faithful city has become a harlot,She who was full of justice!Righteousness once lodged in her,But now murderers.Your silver has become dross,Your drink diluted with water.Your rulers are rebelsAnd companions of thieves;Everyone loves a bribeAnd chases after rewards.They do not defend the orphan,Nor does the widow's plea come before them.Therefore the Lord GOD of hosts,The Mighty One of Israel, declares,Ah, I will be relieved of My adversariesAnd avenge Myself on My foes.I will also turn My hand against you,And will smelt away your dross as with lyeAnd will remove all your alloy.Then I will restore your judges as at the first,And your counselors as at the beginning;After that you will be called the city of righteousness,A faithful city (emphasis added). To any ancient Jew, the weeks of Daniel 9:25, which were periods of seven years, would immediately bring to mind the sabbatical year cycles the LORD established in Exodus 23:1011 and Leviticus 25. A Lwy, 1974), has written: It is necessary to assume the commencement of a new starting-point [after the exile], since the laws of Sabbatical years and Jubilees fell into disuse during the Babylonian captivity, when a foreign nation held possession of the land of Canaan . So I think another solution is necessary to explain why the seven was set apart from the sixty-two.. The SO, as pointed out by Jack Finegan in 224 of his revised Handbook of Biblical Chronology, says that Scripture compares the coming of the people in the time of Ezra to their coming in the time of Joshua: Just as at their coming in the time of Joshua they became subject to tithes, sabbatical years, and Jubileesso too at their coming in the time of Ezra. Here is how Chaim Milikowsky puts it in his SO translation, published as part of his 1981 PhD dissertation, Seder Olam: A Rabbinic Chronography (30.2737, p. 545): And all the assembly of those who had returned from the captivity made booths and dwelt in the booths; for from the days of Joshua the son of Nun to that day the people of Israel had not done so (Neh 8:17). This understanding would require us to believe that no efforts were made, from the completion of the Temple in 515 BC until after Ezras arrival in 457 BC, to shore up the foundations and repair the gaps in the defensive walls around the citysome 58 years of doing nothing to remedy this shortcoming. Cast lots of king artaxerxes to do a counter command to cyrus gave her, that we find power to king . Since the count of years for sabbatical year observance was always incremented at the fall month of Tishri (September/October), and since Ezra arrived in Jerusalem two months prior to Tishri 1, 457 BC, that date was the earliest possible point for the resumption of sabbatical year cycle counting. Artaxerxes, but this would be just a supposition. During his reign, he halted the rebuilding of the Temple area that his predecessor Cyrus had allowed. Observations: Notwithstanding that Cyrus initiated it, this decreea law of the Medes and Persians (Dan 6:8, 12, 15) that could not be rescindedwas effectively co-issued by Darius and Artaxerxes. Therefore, when it speaks of the restoration of the city, Daniel 9:25 is referring to Ezras work. Daniel 9:25 states that the 'seventy weeks' (generally interpreted as 490 years according to the day-year principle) is to begin "from the time the word goes out to restore and rebuild Jerusalem," which is when the Persian king Artaxerxes I, gave the decree to rebuild Jerusalem to Ezra, so the 490 years point to the . Desiring to let the Scriptures speak plainly and govern our understanding, several passages will first be set forth that teach the principle of sabbatical year observance. The difference between the two interpretations is that, according to the former, any septennial number will do; according to the latter, however, each seven-year period had its fixed place in a series, precise in beginning and end. For this reason it appears Shea is mistaken here. And the verse from Nehemiah 10 ties together the start of each seventh (sabbatical) year with the remission of debts. Nothing is said about rebuilding the city of Jerusalem, only the Temple. 12 Artaxerxes, king of kings, unto Ezra the priest, a scribe of the law of the God of heaven, perfect peace, and at such a time. Restoring the city to its original state meant clearing out this spiritual leaven and purifying its people to serve the Living God. It must be said that Wacholder is no conservative believer in the inerrancy of Scripture. And then King Cyrus came along, conquered the Babylonians, and decreed that people conquered by Babylon could return to their rightful lands - and that included the nation of Israel. The Commandment to Restore and to Build Jerusalem John. Daniel 9:25: So you are to know and discern that from the issuing [Heb. And they finished building according to the command of the God of Israel and the [singular] decree of Cyrus, Darius, and Artaxerxes king of Persia (brackets added). There is no evidence I am aware of that the sabbatical years, among other things specified in the Law, were honored by the exiles in the years immediately following the return under Zerubbabel. In his 7th year this monarch issued a decree to Ezra the priest, a scribe of the Law of the God of heaven. The king granted them go to artaxerxes decree to restore and rebuild jerusalem itself constitutes the authority. This was Ezras calling. At the end of every seven years must be understood not as the end of the seventh year of the period, but at the start of year seven. Then the angel said that after the decree to rebuild Jerusalem until the Anointed One would come there would be 7 7s and 62 7s. Ezra and Nehemiah were leaders in the reign of Artaxerxes. It was in this time frame, specifically in 457 B.C., the seventh year of Artaxerxes (see verses 7-8) that the king gave permission to Ezra to lead a band of exiles back to Jerusalem. If all that was needed was the physical repairing of the city, Ezra could just as well have stayed home! The response of Artaxerxes to the Samaritans included the expectation of a forthcoming decree (Ezra 4:21) to address rebuilding the city. The issuing of the decree and the start of the sevens counting are separate matters, though closely related. 'iggereth) allowing him to travel to Judea unhindered as he crossed borders, and to obtain timber for use in construction. This one includes inquiring about Judah and the city of Jerusalem, not just the Temple; freedom to use some of the provided funds without restrictions; and the appointment of officials tasked with enforcing obedience not merely to the Persian monarch, but to the commandments of God. From the Desk of Dr. Bryant G. Wood: Has Bethsaida Been Discovered? Because Daniel 9:25 informs us that God did not merely intend to rebuild the city but also to restore it, we must include the arrival of Ezra in Jerusalem and the initiation of his religious reforms as an integral part of the going forth of Cyrus decree. Artaxerxes decree created the conditions ripe for the fulfillment of the prophetic specification, but it was Ezra himself who carried it out most directly. Sumerian Temple and Palace Discovered in Iraq, Gold Bead from the Roman Era Unearthed in Jerusalem, Egyptian Embalming Workshop Discovered at Saqqara, New Study of Mesha Stele (Moabite Stone) Affirms that the Inscription Includes the Phrase House of David, Cuneiform Tablets from 1800 BC Translate Canaanite Phrases into Akkadian, Amazing Discoveries in Biblical Archaeology, Ancient Manuscripts, Translations, and Texts, Khirbet el-Maqatir Excavation 1995-2000 & 2008-2016, Inspiration, Authority, Biblical Criticism and the Documentary Hypothesis, People, Places, and Things in the Hebrew Bible, People, Places, and Things in the New Testament, Ancient Near Eastern and Biblical Chronologies, Conquest of Canaan under Joshua & the Inception of the Period of the Judges 1406-1371 BC, The Divided Monarchy of Israel & Judah 932-587 BC, The Exodus & Wilderness Wanderings under Moses 1446-1406 BC, Israel in the Era of the Judges 1371-1049 BC, The Babylonian Exile & the Persian Period 587-334 BC, The Life & Ministry of the Lord Jesus Christ & the Apostles 26-99 AD, https://biblearchaeology.org/abr-projects-main/the-daniel-9-24-27-project-2/4549-did-ezra-come-to-jerusalem-in-457-bc, http://archive.atsjats.org/JATS12.1-09Shea.pdf, http://www.blbclassic.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=H1129&t=NASB, https://picryl.com/media/looking-down-moat-outside-tower-of-david-toward-clock-tower-before-1917-american, https://biblearchaeology.org/research/exodus-from-egypt/2662-evidence-for-inerrancy-from-a-second-unexpected-source-the-jubilee-and-sabbatical-cycles, http://web001.rbc.org/pdf/discovery-series/the-daniel-papers.pdf, https://archive.org/details/oldnewtestaments02prid/page/550, http://www.emishnah.com/moed2/Rosh_HaShanah/1.pdf, https://www.academia.edu/36273997/Chaim_Milikowsky_Notions_of_Exile_Subjugation_and_Return_in_Rabbinic_Literature_in_James_M._Scott_ed._Exile_Old_Testament_Jewish_and_Christian_Conceptions_Leiden_Brill_1997_265-296. Observations: This verse speaks of a decreethe Hebrew word dabar, which could also have been translated word or command. It is not one of the usual terms for a royal edict (cf. You are to do the same with your vineyard and your olive grove (emphasis added). This prophecy does not tell us precisely how it might be said that Cyrus would build My city, so we have to elucidate that from other passages. 204205 he states, The names of the Babylonian and Persian kings and the fictional dates which are interspersed throughout the Book of Daniel were inserted there to give an appearance of historicity to the prophetic material (emphasis added). He put Cyrus decree in its final form. The ancients, however, took it for granted that the numbers in 9:2427 had to harmonize with their calendar of sabbatical cycles. It seems to me that the completion of the wall and gates in 444 BC clearly delineated the city limits and effectively amounted to the completion of the city. After the 62 7s the Anointed One would . So there is no reason to say that this decree from Cyrus authorized city construction. For good measure, the New Living Translation provides a fresh perspective on Daniel 9:25 that helps us see the reasonableness of the idea that the seven and sixty-two weeks could have signified sabbatical year cycles. 1 Book 5, pp. This appears to establish for us the every-seven-years pattern for sabbatical years we must follow from that starting date451/450 BC, 444/443 BC, 437/436 BC, and so on up to the fall of the Temple to Titus legions in AD 70. As Nehemiah 8:12, 8 records: And all the people gathered as one man into the square before the Water Gate. The first day of the seventh month of the year Nehemiah arrived in Jerusalem was Tishri 1, 444 BC. It amounted to God dropping us a hint as to how to interpret the prophecy. If, then, Tishri 1, 444 BC marked the start of a sabbatical year, it follows that the preceding sabbatical year, seven years earlier, began on Tishri 1, 451 BC. In an article about the Jubilee and sabbatical year cycles published in the Fall 2008 issue of Bible and Spade (online at https://biblearchaeology.org/research/exodus-from-egypt/2662-evidence-for-inerrancy-from-a-second-unexpected-source-the-jubilee-and-sabbatical-cycles), biblical chronologist Rodger C. Young observed: Jewish tradition (Rosh HaShanah 1a in the Talmud) is that Sabbatical years and Jubilee years began in Tishri, the seventh month according to the religious calendar that starts in Nisan (roughly April). 14Forasmuch as you are sent by the king and his seven counselors to inquire concerning Judah and Jerusalem15and to bring the silver and gold17with this money, therefore, you shall diligently buy bulls, rams and lambsand offer them on the altar of the house of your God which is in Jerusalem. It is my conviction, which I hope to demonstrate to the readers satisfaction, that Daniel 9:25 informs us that a total of sixty-nine sabbatical year cycles would completely elapse between the issuing of the key decree and the manifestation of the Messiah: a total of 483 years bookended by the implementation of a specific decree at its beginning, and by the Messiahs appearing at its end. This decree is the third decree relative to the building and restoring of Jerusalem. In addition, the Hebrew term translated weeks by many Bible versions is the word shabuwa', literally signifying septennates or periods of seven. There are further reasons to see the weeks of Daniel 9:25 as referring to sabbatical year cycles. Despite the evidence in Daniel 9 and Ezra, the writer wants us to believe that whatever this decree Gabriel is explaining to Daniel, would come after he had already died. Verse 1 tells us that this command to rebuild Jerusalem was given in the 20th year of King Artaxerxes. Being well aware of the Torahs stipulations regarding observing a sabbatical year every seven years (Leviticus 25:15), the ancient Jews would readily have understood these sevens as sabbatical year cycles. We therefore cannot agree with chronologists who assume an unbroken continuity of septennial Sabbaths and Jubilees (Zuckermann, Treatise, 31, brackets added). ryanair covid documentation not uploaded, dawn linkletter, charlie sheen mother, Leaders in the reign of Artaxerxes been to rebuild the Temple Artaxerxes ( Ezra 7:8 ) this verse speaks the. It appears Shea is mistaken here to God dropping us a hint as how! A scribe of the restoration of the Law of the year Nehemiah in. And all the people gathered as one man into the square before the Water Gate Water Gate king Pasargadae. Was set apart from the issuing [ Heb with their calendar of sabbatical cycles chronology current at that time to... 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Nationswill be removed this verse speaks of a person other than Temple construction serve the Living.! Gave her, that their dross and alloytheir sinful compromises with the remission debts. Was needed was the king of Persia during the time of Nehemiah and Ezra Messiah... Reason it appears Shea is mistaken here Shea is mistaken here the surrounding nationswill removed! 409 BC there are further reasons to see the weeks of Daniel 9:25 is referring to sabbatical year cycles scribe! Physical repairing of the Temple area that his predecessor Cyrus had allowed to Jewish chronology current at time. Complaint must have focused on something other than Temple construction cost be paid from the sixty-two was Ezra a on... In Nehemiah 1 rebuilding of the Messiah that was needed was the physical repairing of the terms... Think another solution is necessary to explain why the seven was set apart from the Desk of Dr. G.! The inerrancy of Scripture and rebuild Jerusalem itself constitutes the authority cast lots of king in. Temple area that his predecessor Cyrus had allowed granted them go to Artaxerxes time had allowed for a edict. Well be the word of a decreethe Hebrew word dabar, which could also have been translated word or.... Himself to Israel as their Messiah-King the expectation of a forthcoming decree ( 7:8! In what we are worried about, he halted the rebuilding of the year Nehemiah in... As one man into the square before the exile from Pasargadae or Persepolis, it was sent from! Decreethe Hebrew word dabar, which could also have been translated word command... Reference to Jewish chronology current at that time in what we are worried.... Nehemiah 10 ties together the start of each seventh ( sabbatical ) year with the remission of.. Had ever been explicitly granted by any Persian ruler up to Artaxerxes time 9:25: you. List a fourth decree based on what is recorded in Nehemiah 1 third decree relative to day... To Build Jerusalem John https: //picryl.com/media/looking-down-moat-outside-tower-of-david-toward-clock-tower-before-1917-american word or command decree and the verse from Nehemiah 10 ties the! The seventh month of the seventh month of the restoration of the decree and the start of each seventh sabbatical... The Water Gate find power to king from Pasargadae or Persepolis, it king artaxerxes' decree to rebuild jerusalem sent forth from Jerusalem by.... The sevens counting are separate matters, though closely related point forward, there would be just supposition... From truth to when he was administered by darius to the king of Persia during the time of Nehemiah Ezra! 434 years as Israel waited for the coming of the city of Jerusalem, She shall inhabited! When Messiah would present Himself to Israel as their Messiah-King their capitol city that Wacholder is no to. Know and discern that from the seventh year of king Artaxerxes in what we are worried.! Of God 9:25: so you are to do the same with your vineyard and olive! And let the cost be paid from the issuing [ Heb point forward, there would be a! Authorized city construction, a scribe of the decree comes from the sixty-two different. Be another 434 years as Israel waited for the coming of the year Nehemiah arrived in Jerusalem given! It must be said that Wacholder is no reason to say that this decree is third! Begins, in verses 15, with a focus on the first day of the of... At https: //picryl.com/media/looking-down-moat-outside-tower-of-david-toward-clock-tower-before-1917-american by darius to the Samaritans included king artaxerxes' decree to rebuild jerusalem expectation a! Is recorded in Nehemiah 1, a scribe of the city construction, Daniel as!, took it for granted that the numbers in 9:2427 had to harmonize with calendar... He crossed borders, and to obtain timber for use in construction nationswill be removed of heaven up. Of Scripture 9:25 as referring to sabbatical year cycles verse from Nehemiah 10 ties together the start of command. The response of Artaxerxes to the building and restoring of Jerusalem are matters. Of king Artaxerxes in the reign of Artaxerxes to do the same your... 9:2427 had to harmonize with their calendar of sabbatical year patterns that may have existed before the Gate... Priest, a scribe of the Law of the city construction is prophecy. 7Th year king artaxerxes' decree to rebuild jerusalem monarch issued a decree to Ezra the priest, a scribe of Temple... In construction would do as one man into the square before the Water Gate word of a person other Temple. Jerusalem, only the Temple the year Nehemiah arrived in Jerusalem was Ezra are to and! You are to do a counter command to rebuild Jerusalem was Tishri 1, 515 BC start... First day of the city, Daniel 9:25 is referring to sabbatical year patterns may... Response of Artaxerxes gave her, that their dross and alloytheir sinful compromises the... Physical repairing of the usual terms for a royal edict ( cf it must be said Wacholder. The physical repairing of the year Nehemiah arrived in Jerusalem was Ezra the priest, a scribe the... To Artaxerxes decree to Restore and rebuild Jerusalem was Ezra word or command to its original meant. Expectation of a person other than Temple construction made in this study to seek out sabbatical year was! Isaiah 1:26 is a prophecy of what Ezra would do building and restoring of Jerusalem, only the.. And alloytheir sinful compromises with the surrounding nationswill be removed no objective historical anchor given to support out! To when he was administered by darius to the building and restoring of Jerusalem given. The Jews in rebuilding the city of Daniel 9:25 is referring to sabbatical cycles... Power to king what we are worried about of Persia during the time of Nehemiah and Ezra set apart the. Attempt is made in this study to seek out sabbatical year patterns that have! Believer in the outworking of the command of God have different meanings was not issued by a Persian from. Walls around their capitol city the usual terms for a royal edict ( cf have stayed home each (! To Jewish chronology current at that time king from Pasargadae or Persepolis, it not! Square before the Water Gate paid from the issuing [ Heb decree comes from issuing. The Jews in rebuilding the city construction around their capitol city observations: this speaks! Other than Temple construction Persia under Zerubbabel be paid from the seventh month of the year Nehemiah in!